7 Chapter 4: European Art Music: Middle Ages to Rornanticl


Middle Ages (ca. 450 to ca. 1450)

The perlod ln the hlstory of Western Europe, today called the Mlddle Ages, beglns around 450 A.D. What had once been a Vast emplre domlnated by Roman law and culture fell apart ln consequence of a serles of lncurslons by the Goths, Huns, and other “barbarlan” trlbes. Europe became a feudal soclety ln whlch the majorlty of the populatlon was peasants, or serfs. The landowners were noblemen who llVed ln tapestry- hung castles ln walled Vlllages, some of whlch are the antecedents of European cltles of today. To fight the almost constant wars wlth each other, powerful lords ralsed thelr sons to be warrlors, knlghts who pledged to follow codes of loyalty and chlValry. When not engaged ln battles, these armored fighters partlclpated ln elaborate tournaments for the entertalnment of the court. Knlghts also jolned the crusades, multl-year Chrlstlan expedltlons to the Mlddle East to recapture the Holy Land from Moslem rule.

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As Chrlstlanlty spread durlng the Mlddle Ages, great cathedrals were bullt across Europe as places of publlc worshlp, each preslded oVer by a blshop appolnted by the pope. Monasterles and conVents were establlshed as self-sufficlent rellglous communltles where monks and nuns llVed ln lsolatlon from the outslde world. At a tlme when the populatlon was essentlally llllterate, monasterles were centers of learnlng. Monks copled and lllustrated rellglous manuscrlpts as well as books that preserVed wrltlngs of Arablc and Greek scholars.

Monasterles haVe a speclal slgnlficance ln the hlstory of European muslc. The lntonlng of sacred texts, a practlce the early Chrlstlans borrowed from other rellglons, was an lmportant element of thelr llturgy. The chants sung ln the serVlces, some of them of anclent orlgln, were passed on through oral tradltlon, undoubtedly undergolng changes ln the process. In order to brlng some organlzatlon to thls huge body of melodles, monks formulated prlnclples for classlfylng the scales on whlch they were based, the church modes. They also experlmented wlth methods of wrltlng them down. Monophonlc chants constltuted the core of the repertory, but there were also practlces of performlng chants wlth one or more melodles added to them, an early form of polyphony. The system that the monks ultlmately deVeloped, essentlally the staff of llnes and spaces ln use today, accompllshed not only the exact fixlng of the pltches of a melody, but allowed for the notatlon of two or more slmultaneous melodles that graphlcally represented thelr relatlonshlp to one another. ObserVatlons about these relatlonshlps led to concepts of consonance and dlssonance and to early rules for creatlng new muslc of two or more parts. What was orlglnally lntended as a mechanlsm for preserVlng exlstlng muslc lald the foundatlons for Western theorles of counterpolnt and harmony. Those prlnclples and practlces made posslble the composltlon of muslc of great textural complexlty and are themselVes among the major lntellectual achleVements ln human hlstory.

Historic Context

  • Fall of the Roman Emplre around 450.
  • Rlse of the Byzantlne/Eastern Roman, Franklsh/Western Roman, Perslan, Moslem, and Turklsh Em- plres.
  • Plague of 542-594 kllls half the populatlon of Europe.
  • Charlemagne (742-814) crowned Holy Roman Emperor, 800.
  • Vlklng shlpbulldlng flourlshes ca. 900.
  • Herolc poem Beowulf ca. 1000.
  • DlscoVery of the Amerlcas by Lelf Erlksson ca. 1000.
  • Flrst Crusade 1095-1099 followed by successlon of crusades endlng ln 1291.
  • Slgnlng of the Magna Carta, llmltlng the power of the Engllsh klng, 1215.
  • Black Death 1347-1349 and 1361 kllls a thlrd of the populatlon of Europe.
  • “Death of Knlghthood” at Battle of Aglncourt, 1415; French knlghts ln armor are defeated by Engllsh armed wlth crossbows.
  • Joan of Arc burned at the stake, 1431.
  • Establlshment of major European cltles: Venlce (ca. 450), Granada (ca. 750), Dublln (ca. 840), Lelpzlg (ca. 1015), Vlenna (ca. 1220), Copenhagen (ca. 1040), Nuremberg (ca. 1050), Oslo (ca. 1050),

Munlch (ca. 1100), Moscow (ca. 1150), Belfast (ca. 1170), Heldelberg (ca. 1200), LlVerpool (ca. 1200),

Amsterdam (ca. 1200), Berlln (ca. 1230), Prague (ca. 1250), Stockholm (ca. 1250).

  • Spread of Chrlstlanlty through Europe: Vatlcan Palace bullt ca. 500; Benedlctlne Order founded 529; Wales conVerted to Chrlstlanlty ca. 550; Papacy of Gregory I 590-604; Parthenon ln Rome consecrated as Church of S. Marla Rotunda, 609; Monastery of St. Gallen, Swltzerland, founded 612; Gloucester Abbey founded 681; first canonlzatlon of salnts 993; Iceland and Greenland conVerted to Chrlstlanlty ca. 1000.
  • Bulldlng of cathedrals and baslllcas: bulldlng of St. Sophla Baslllca ln Constantlnople 532-537; Arles Cathedral founded ca. 600; St. Paul’s Church, London, founded ca. 603; foundlng of Wlnchester Cathedral 685; Baslllca of St. Mark, Venlce (975-1094); consecratlon of Westmlnster Abbey (1065); Canterbury Cathedral (1070-1503); Chartres Cathedral 1134- 1260; Verona Cathedral (1139-1187); Notre Dame Cathedral (1163-1235); Salnte-Chapelle, Parls (1246-1258); Cologne Cathedral, 1248- 1880; SeVllle 1402.
  • Foundlng of unlVersltles: Salerno (850); Parls (1150); Oxford (1167); Bologna (1119); Slena (1203);

Vlcenza (1204); Salamanca (1217); Toulouse (1229); The Sorbonne (1254); Montpelller (1289); Llsbon

(1290); Rome (1303); Grenoble (1339); Plsa (1338); Prague (1348); Vlenna (1366); Heldelberg (1386);

Cologne (1388). Milestones In Music

  • Foundlng of Schola Cantorum by Pope Gregory ln Rome, 600 AD.
  • Experlments ln notatlon of pltch; first use of neumes, ca. 650.
  • Muslca enchlrladls, treatlse descrlblng early polyphony (organum), ca. 870.
  • Emergence of staff notatlon as preferred system, ca. 900.
  • Organ wlth 400 plpes at Wlnchester Cathedral, ca. 980.
  • AdVances ln notatlon of rhythm, 13th century.
  • Earllest preserVed examples of composed muslc of two or more lndependent melodles ca. 850-900.
  • Earllest theorles of consonance and dlssonance, 12th century.
  • Treatlses descrlblng adVances ln notatlon of rhythm ca. 1280 and ca. 1320. Musical Genres
  • Chant, monophonlc settlngs of texts used ln serVlces of the early Chrlstlan church.
  • Monophonlc settlngs of secular poems, often about courtly loVe, by poet/muslclans called troubadours and trouVeres.
  • Polyphonlc settlngs of sacred and secular texts for two or three parts, sometlmes wlth one of the parts a preexlstent melody, such as a chant.
  • Monophonlc dances.

Major Figures In Music

  • Leonln (ca. 1135-1201): composer and compller of early polyphony conslstlng of two melodlc llnes,

actlVe at Notre Dame Cathedral ln Parls.

  • Perotln (1180-ca. 1207): successor of Leonln at Notre Dame, contlnued deVelopment of polyphony, malnly conslstlng of three melodlc llnes.
  • Gulllaume de Machaut (ca. 1300-1377): French clerlc, poet, and muslclan; composer of sacred and secular works, mostly conslstlng of three melodlc llnes.
  • Francesco Landlnl (ca. 1325-1397): Itallan composer of secular songs, mostly conslstlng of three melodlc llnes.
  • Gulllaume Dufay (ca. 1400-1474): Netherlandlsh composer of secular and sacred works of three or four melodlc llnes.

Other Historic Figures

  • St. Augustlne (354-430): early Chrlstlan thlnker and wrlter.
  • Boethlus (ca. 480-524): Roman statesman and phllosopher, author of The Consolatlons of Phllosophy and De lnstltutlone muslca, a treatlse on numerlcal propertles of muslcal sounds and the relatlonshlp between mathematlcal proportlons and human morallty.
  • Mohammed (590-632): founder of Islam.
  • AVlcenna (980-1037): Islamlc phllosopher, sclentlst, and physlclan.
  • Anselm (1033-1109): Chrlstlan phllosopher; propounded the ontologlcal argument for God’s exlstence.
  • AVerroes (1126-1198): Islamlc phllosopher and commentator on Arlstotle.
  • Malmonldes (1125-1204): Jewlsh phllosopher; author of Gulde to the Perplexed.
  • Marco Polo (1254-1324): Venetlan traVeler to Chlna 1271-1295.
  • Thomas Aqulnas (ca. 1225-1274): Cathollc scholar and phllosopher.
  • Dante Allghlerl (1265-1321): Itallan poet, author of The DlVlne Comedy (1307), a cosmology of medleVal Cathollclsm.
  • Glotto (ca. 1268-1337): Itallan palnter; frescoes of blbllcal scenes ln churches of Florence and Padua.
  • Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) (1304-1374): Itallan poet; sonnets of ldeallzed loVe.
  • Boccaclo (1313-1375): Itallan poet, author of the Decameron (1353), 100 wltty and often bawdy allegorlcal tales set ln the tlme of the Black Death ln Florence.
  • Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1340-1400): Engllsh poet and wrlter, author of Canterbury Tales (1387), storles of courtly romance, decelt, and greed related by 30 people from dlfferent segments of Engllsh medleVal soclety on a pllgrlmage to Canterbury Cathedral.
  • Jan Van Eyck (ca. 1390-1441): Flemlsh palnter; domestlc scenes palnted ln olls.

Renaissance (ca. 1450-1600)

The deslgnatlon “Renalssance” dates from the 18th century and reflects the reVlVal of lnterest ln the classlcal clVlllzatlons of Greece and Rome that profoundly lnfluenced the culture and thlnklng of the century and a half followlng the Mlddle Ages. The perlod ls also called the Age of Humanlsm because of the emphasls on the nature, potentlal, and accompllshments of man ln llterature, art and muslc, sclence, and phllosophy. The medleVal approach to understandlng the world, whlch was based on speculatlVe systems of dlVlne order and harmony, was supplanted by theorles derlVed from sclentlfic obserVatlon. Learnlng was hlghly Valued and, through the lnVentlon of prlntlng, became aVallable to a wlde populatlon. Other lmportant lnVentlons are the telescope and lnstruments for naVlgatlon used by explorers such as Columbus and Magellan.

The Cathollc Church remalned an lmportant lnstltutlon durlng the Renalssance, but dlmlnlshed ln ln- fluence ln consequence of the wealth and power of famllles such as the Medlcl of Florence and the Estes of Ferrara, whose courts became centers of culture, learnlng, and mllltary mlght. The Reformatlon, whlch be- gan wlth Martln Luther’s crltlclsms of Church abuses, had lts greatest lmpact ln Germany. Other breakaway moVements followed ln France and Swltzerland, as well as ln England, where Henry VIII defied the authorlty of the pope and declared hlmself head of a new Angllcan church. Wars between Cathollcs and Protestants are part of the hlstory of many of the countrles that broke wlth Rome.

In muslc and the other arts, patronage by royalty, who competed ln malntalnlng splendld courts as well as chapels, spurred the deVelopment of secular forms of artlstlc expresslon.

Whether secular or sacred, Renalssance art, sculpture, and archltecture embody the ldeals of balance, clarlty, and emotlonal restralnt that characterlzed the classlclsm of the Greeks. In muslc, where no anclent models surVlVed, that aesthetlc found expresslon ln a style that eVolVed from concepts of consonance and dlssonance deVeloped ln the Mlddle Ages but wlth new emphasls on harmonlous sonorltles. The predomlnant texture conslsted of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass Volce parts creatlng a hlghly contrapuntal web ln whlch the llnes dlVerge, conVerge, cross, echo, and lmltate each other, sometlmes wlth great rhythmlc lndependence, sometlmes moVlng together ln the manner of a hymn. In settlng rellglous texts, composers stroVe for an atmosphere of serenlty and splrltuallty, ln the settlng of secular texts, for VlVld representatlon of words and lmages. Instrumental muslc contlnued to be of secondary lmportance to composers, whose approach to wrltlng for lnstruments was usually the same as that for Volces. For example, publlshed collectlons of dances requlred unspeclfied lnstruments of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass range-ln essence Vocal pleces wlthout words. Some composers, howeVer, began to explore shaplng muslcal materlal ln ways that explolted the unlque features of the lnstruments on whlch lt would be performed.

Historic Context

  • End of Hundred Year’s War between England and France, ca. 1450.
  • Capture of Constantlnople, capltal of the Eastern church, by Turks, 1453.
  • Johannes Gutenberg (ca. 1396-1468) lnVentor of prlntlng ln Europe, prlnts Blble from moVable type, ca, 1454.
  • Bulldlng of Palazzo Plttl, Florence, 1460.
  • Start of the Spanlsh Inqulsltlon, 1481.
  • Tudor dynasty ln England, 1485-1603.
  • Chrlstopher Columbus first Voyage to the New World 1492; last Voyage 1501-1504.
  • Beglnnlng of prlntlng of the Aldlnes, serles of Greek classlcs of Arlstotle, Arlstophanes, et al., 1495.
  • Beglnnlng of postal serVlce, between Vlenna and Brussels, 1500.
  • Coronatlon of Henry VIII as Klng of England, 1509.
  • Plneapples lmported lnto Europe, 1514.
  • Martln Luther’s nlnety-fiVe theses nalled to church door at Wlttenberg, 1517; beglnnlng of the Refor- matlon.
  • Coffee lntroduced to Europe 1517.
  • Llcense granted to lmport Afrlcan slaVes to Spanlsh colonles ln New World, 1518.
  • Cortes brlngs horses from Spaln to North Amerlca, 1518.
  • Ferdlnand Magellan (1480-1521) sets off to clrcumnaVlgate the globe, 1519.
  • Foundlng of Royal Llbrary of France at Fontalnebleau, 1520.
  • Chocolate brought from Mexlco to Spaln, 1520.
  • Martln Luther beglns translatlon of Blble from Latln to German, 1521, completed 1534.
  • Manufacture of sllk lntroduced to France, 1521.
  • DlscoVery of New York harbor and Hudson RlVer by GloVannl da Verrazano, 1524.
  • Outbreaks of plague ln England, 1528.
  • Henry VIII breaks wlth Rome and establlshes Angllcan Church, 1534.
  • Bulldlng of St. Basll’s, Moscow, 1534-1561.
  • Collected works of Clcero publlshed ln Venlce, 1537.
  • Hernando de Soto dlscoVers Mlsslsslppl RlVer, 1541.
  • Councll of Trent (1545-1563): meetlng of church leaders called by Pope Paul III to address abuses ln Cathollc Church.
  • Beglnnlng of bulldlng of the LouVre, Parls, 1546.
  • Tobacco brought from Amerlca to Spaln, 1555.
  • Coronatlon of Ellzabeth I as Queen of England, 1559.
  • Tullps lntroduced to Europe from Near East, 1561.
  • Outbreak of plague ln Europe, oVer 20,000 dle ln London, 1563.
  • Two mllllon Indlans dle ln South Amerlca from typhold feVer lntroduced by Europeans, 1567.
  • St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre of 2,000 Huguenots (French Protestants) ln Parls, 1572.
  • Outbreak of plague ln Italy, 1575.
  • Defeat of the Spanlsh Armada by the Engllsh, 1588.
  • Outbreak of plague ln London kllls 15,000, 1592.
  • Publlcatlon of Mercator’s atlas, 1595.
  • Tomatoes lntroduced ln England, 1596.
  • Dutch optlclans lnVent the telescope, 1600. Milestones in Music
  • Flrst prlnted collectlon of polyphonlc muslc by OttaVlano Petruccl, Venlce, 1501; ln 1520s and 1530s

muslc prlntlng houses founded ln London, Parls, Venlce, Rome, Nuremberg, and Antwerp.

  • Publlcatlon of tutors on composlng muslc and playlng lnstruments.
  • Foundlng of first conserVatorles of muslc ln Naples and Venlce, 1537.
  • Early deVelopment of the Vlolln, 1550s.
  • Florentlne Camerata meets ln the home of GloVannl Bardl and speculates about the correct performance of Greek drama leadlng to the creatlon of recltatlVe style slnglng and the lnVentlon of opera, 1573 to

c. 1590.

Musical Genres

  • Motet: settlng of Latln sacred text; prlnclpal performance medlum a cappella chorus of soprano, alto, tenor bass; texture of lmltatlVe counterpolnt. Josquln des Prez set the model for the Renalssance motet.
  • Mass: settlng of texts of the Mass Ordlnary; prlnclpal performance medlum a cappella chorus of soprano, alto, tenor bass; texture of lmltatlVe counterpolnt. Almost all Renalssance composers wrote masses.
  • Madrlgal: settlng of secular text; prlnclpal performance medlum a cappella chorus of soprano, alto, tenor bass; texture of lmltatlVe counterpolnt; maln secular genre ln Italy and England; use of word palntlng to lllustrate text lmages.
  • Chanson: a cappella settlng of secular text; prlnclpal performance medlum a cappella chorus of soprano, alto, tenor, bass; prlnclpal secular genre ln France.
  • Chorale: settlng of German sacred text; lntroduced by Martln Luther for congregatlonal slnglng.
  • Canzona: lnstrumental adaptatlon of the chanson. GloVannl Gabrlell’s canzones were probably com- posed for rellglous celebratlons at St. Mark’s ln Venlce.
  • Dances: lnstrumental works to accompany danclng, often palred as a slow dance wlth glldlng moVe- ments followed by a faster dance wlth leaplng moVements.

Major Figures in Music

  • Johannes Ockeghem (ca. 1420-1497): composer of sacred and secular muslc, actlVe ln Antwerp; teacher of many early Renalssance composers.
  • Josquln des Prez (ca. 1440-1521): Franco-Flemlsh composer; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • GloVannl Gabrlell: Itallan composer; dlrector of muslc at St. Mark’s ln Venlce.
  • GloVannl Plerlulgl da Palestrlna (1525-1594): Itallan composer of sacred and secular muslc; credlted wlth lntroduclng Counterreformatlon reforms followlng the Councll of Trent; referred to by contempo- rarles as The Prlnce of Muslc.
  • Wllllam Byrd (1543-1623): Engllsh composer of sacred and secular Vocal muslc and works for the keyboard.
  • Tomas Luls de Vlctorla (1548-1611): Spanlsh composer of sacred muslc. Other Historic Figures
  • Donatello (1368-1466): Itallan sculptor; works deplctlng rellglous subjects for churches and chapels ln

Florence, Slena, Padua, Venlce.

  • Flllppo Brunelleschl (1372-1446): Itallan archltect, deslgner of dome of Santa Marla del Flore ln Florence.
  • Fra Angellco (1387-1455): Itallan palnter; frescoes of New Testament scenes ln Florence and the Vatlcan.
  • Johann Gutenberg (ca. 1396-1468): German prlnter; first Blble prlnted uslng moVable type.
  • Fra Flllppo Llppl (ca. 1406-1469): Itallan palnter, especlally esteemed for hls frescoes and altarpleces.
  • Hans Memllng (1433-1484): Dutch palnter actlVe ln Bruges; altarpleces, portralts notable for attentlon to faclal detall; Adoratlon of the Magl, The Last Judgment.
  • Sandro Bottlcelll (1444-1510): Itallan palnter; Blrth of Venus.
  • Lorenzo de’ Medlcl, “The Magnlficent”; (1449-1492): Florentlne arlstocrat and lmportant patron of artlsts, lncludlng Leonardo da Vlncl.
  • Chrlstopher Columbus (1451-1506): Itallan explorer; Voyages to the “new world”; 1492-1504.
  • Leonardo da Vlncl (1452-1519): Itallan palnter, sculptor, archltect, englneer, lnVentor, phllosopher; The Last Supper, Mona Llsa; sclentlfic drawlngs.
  • Erasmus of Rotterdam (1465-1536): humanlst, theologlan, and wrlter on free wlll, superstltlon, rellglous orthodoxy; credlted wlth the adage “In the land of the bllnd the one-eyed man ls klng.”
  • Nlccolo MachlaVelll (1469-1527): Itallan wrlter and polltlclan; author of The Prlnce, an examlnatlon of the nature and exerclse of polltlcal power.
  • Nlcolaus Copernlcus (1473-1543): Pollsh astronomer; obserVatlons on moVement of planets and stars.
  • Mlchelangelo Buonarrotl (1475-1564): Itallan sculptor, palnter, poet, archltect; Pleta, celllng and fresco of The Last Judgment ln the Slstlne Chapel of the Vatlcan; chlef archltect of St. Peter’s, Rome.
  • Tltlan (1477-1576): Itallan palnter of portralts and landscapes, mythologlcal and rellglous subjects, actlVe ln Venlce and Spaln.
  • Thomas More (1478-1535): Engllsh lawyer, statesman, and humanlst; executed for hls opposltlon to Henry VIII’s establlshlng Church of England wlth hlmself as lts head; author of Utopla whlch descrlbes an ldeal, lmaglnary natlon.
  • Martln Luther (1483-1546): German rellglous reformer, founder of Protestanlsm; translated The Blble lnto German.
  • Henry VIII (1491-1547): klng of England, 1509 to 1547; establlshed Church of England ln defiance of Rome’s refusal to grant hlm a dlVorce.
  • Jean CalVln (1509-1564): founder of CalVlnlsm, form of Protestantlsm adopted by the Pllgrlms.
  • Tlntoretto (1518-1594): Itallan palnter; scenes from the llfe of Chrlst and of the Vlrgln Mary ln the Scuolo San Rocco ln Venlce; also palnted mythologlcal scenes and portralts.
  • Ellzabeth I (1533-1603): queen of England 1558 to 1603, referred to as England’s Golden Age; a glfted and well educated monarch, loVer of theater, muslc, and dance.
  • El Greco (1541-1614): Spanlsh-Greek palnter; palntlngs and altarpleces of mystlcal lntenslty ln Toledo; also portralts; Vlew of Toledo ln New York’s Metropolltan Museum.
  • Torquato Tasso (1544-1595): Itallan poet; author of Jerusalem DellVered about the Thlrd Crusade.
  • Mlguel de CerVantes (1547-1616): Spanlsh wrlter, author of Don Qulxote.
  • Francls Bacon (1561-1626): Engllsh lawyer, polltlclan, and phllosopher at the court of Ellzabeth I.
  • Wllllam Shakespeare (1564-1616): Engllsh playwrlght and poet; author of Romeo and Jullet, Merchant of Venlce, Hamlet, Macbeth, numerous hlstory plays, sonnets.
  • Chrlstopher Marlowe (1564-1593): Engllsh playwrlght, author of Tamburlalne and Dr. Faustus.
  • Gallleo Galllel (1564-1642): Itallan sclentlst, experlments ln the study of graVlty and astronomy; ln 1633 condemned by the Cathollc Church to llfelong lmprlsonment for defendlng Copernlcus’s theory that the earth reVolVes around the sun.

Baroque: ca. 1600-1750

Many of the hlstorlc eVents ln Europe durlng the 17th and early 18th centurles are extenslons of forces that shaped and defined the Renalssance. The exploratlons of the 16th century were followed by the establlshment of more and more colonles ln the New World. In the sphere of lntellectual actlVlty, the sclentlfic methodologles and dlscoVerles of Copernlcus and Gallleo lald the foundatlons for the work of Kepler and Newton, and the phllosophers Descartes, Splnoza, and Locke embraced the Renalssance pursult of truth through reason. Rellglous confllcts engendered by the Reformatlon contlnued to erupt throughout the 17th century. In the area that ls now Germany, tenslons between Protestants and Cathollcs followlng the Reformatlon lgnlted a catastrophlc Thlrty Years War, durlng the course of whlch half the populatlon dled. The hlstory of England ls also a Vlolent one, wlth such bloody deeds as the beheadlng of Mary Queen of Scots and Charles I, both Cathollcs, and the posthumous hanglng and dlsmemberment of OllVer Cromwell, a commoner and Purltan who became England’s Lord Protector durlng the Commonwealth perlod. The powers of the absolute monarch reached new helghts ln France, whose cltlzens were heaVlly taxed to support Louls XIV and the 20,000 courtlers who llVed at the extraVagant palace he had bullt for hlmself at Versallles.

These were some of the contexts ln whlch artlsts worked durlng the approxlmately 150-year perlod of the Baroque. As ln the Renalssance, popes, cardlnals, monarchs, and members of the arlstocracy contlnued to use art as a symbol of power and wealth. But artlsts and muslclans also created works for a wlder publlc. The art, archltecture, and muslc they created exhlblt features that are characterlstlc of romantlc expresslon-lntense emotlon, flamboyance, and dynamlc moVement. For subjects, palnters and sculptors were drawn to dramatlc moments from mythology, anclent hlstory, and the Blble, whlch they deplcted wlth elaborate decoratlon, VlVld color, and bold use of llght and shadow. They also portrayed scenes from eVeryday llfe that were dlsplayed ln the homes of the rlslng mlddle class. Archltecture, often grandlose ln scale, employed sweeplng llnes, hlgh domes, columns, and statues, all oVerlald wlth ornamental detall. The taste for dramatlc expresslon ln conjunctlon wlth the openlng of publlc concert halls created a supportlVe cllmate for the emergence of

opera and oratorlo and of new lnstrumental genres lndependent of Vocal muslc such as the sonata, concerto, and sulte. In thelr pursult of dramatlc lntenslty, composers lntroduced strongly contrastlng effects-between loud and soft, between sololst and large group, between Volces and lnstruments-and deVeloped a Vocabulary of deVlces that assoclated partlcular keys, meters, rhythmlc figures, and lnstruments wlth speclfic emotlonal states, such as anger, loVe, joy, and grlef.

Historic Context

  • Foundlng of Dutch East Indla Company, 1602.
  • Foundlng of Sante Fe, New Mexlco, 1605.
  • Foundlng of Jamestown, Vlrglnla, 1607.
  • Dutch East Indla Company shlps tea from Chlna shlpped to Europe, 1609.
  • DlscoVery of Hudson Bay by Henry Hudson, 1610.
  • Klng James Blble publlshed, 1611; first authorlzed Verslon of the Blble ln Engllsh.
  • Tobacco planted ln Vlrglnla, 1612.
  • Thlrty Years War ln Germany, 1618-1648; almost half the populatlon dles due to war, famlne, and plague.
  • DlscoVery of clrculatlon of the blood by Wllllam HarVey, 1619.
  • Flrst Afrlcan slaVes ln North Amerlca arrlVe ln Vlrglnla, 1619.
  • Pllgrlms arrlVe ln Massachusetts, 1620.
  • Dutch West Indles Company purchases Manhattan Island from natlVe Indlans; colony of New Amster- dam founded, 1626.
  • Foundlng of colony of Massachusetts, 1629.
  • Foundlng of HarVard College, 1636.
  • Bay Psalm Book, oldest surVlVlng prlnted book ln Amerlca, 1640.
  • Engllsh Commonwealth, 1649-1660, under leadershlp of OllVer Cromwell.
  • Restoratlon of Engllsh monarchy, 1660.
  • Foundlng of Academlc Royale de Danse by Louls XIV, 1661.
  • Louls XIV beglns bulldlng of Versallles, 1662.
  • Plague ln London kllls 68,000, 1665.
  • Great Flre of London, 1666.
  • Foundlng of the College of Wllllam and Mary, Vlrglnla, 1692.
  • Inoculatlon agalnst small pox lntroduced ln England, 1717.
  • Frederlck the Great lntroduces freedom of the press and freedom of worshlp ln Prussla, 1740. Milestones in Music
  • Gulllo Cacclnl, NuoVe muslche, 1601; collectlon of songs for solo Volce and lnstrumental accompanlment,

establlshlng a texture used throughout the baroque perlod.

  • Performance of MonteVerdl’s Orfeo, 1607, consldered first lmportant opera.
  • Encyclopedla of muslc by German composer Mlchael Praetorlus, 1620.
  • Flrst publlc opera house, Teatro San Casslano, opens ln Venlce, 1637.
  • Foundlng of Academlc Royale des Operas, Parls, 1669.
  • Openlng of Parls Opera, 1671.
  • Flrst German opera house opens ln Hamburg, 1678.
  • VlValdl appolnted maestro dl Vlolono at orphanage for glrls ln Venlce, 1703.
  • InVentlon of the planoforte by Bartolomeo Crlstoforl, Itallan harpslchord maker, 1709.
  • Handel settles permanently ln London, 1711.
  • Bach accepts posltlon as cantor of St. Thomas Church, Lelpzlg, 1723.
  • Flrst publlc concerts ln Parls, Concerts Splrltuels, 1725.
  • Flrst performance of Handel’s Messlah, Dublln, 1742. Musical Genres
  • Opera: drama set to muslc for slngers and lnstruments and acted on the stage wlth sets and costumes. MonteVerdl ls generally consldered to be the most lmportant composer of the early Baroque, Handel of the late Baroque.
  • Oratorlo: a story, usually rellglous, set to muslc but performed wlthout staglng. Oratorlo, llke opera, orlglnated ln Italy. Handel ls the most lmportant oratorlo composer of the late Baroque.
  • Cantata: multlple moVement Vocal work on a pastoral or rellglous text. Bach composed oVer 300 cantatas for performance on Sundays throughout the church year.
  • Concerto: lnstrumental composltlon that plts one or more sololsts agalnst the orchestra. VlValdl was a major figure ln the standardlzatlon of the deslgn and character of the solo concerto.
  • Fugue: a polyphonlc composltlon, usually for four Volce parts, based on one theme or subject that ls deVeloped ln an lmltatlVe texture. Bach’s many fugues sum up the art of fugal wrltlng.
  • Sonata: ln the Baroque perlod, an lnstrumental chamber work for one or two melody lnstruments and contlnuo accompanlment. Arcangelo Corelll’s sonatas for two Vlollns and contlnuo are consldered classlc examples of the genre.
  • Sulte: collectlon of lnstrumental dance moVements of dlfferent character and often natlonal orlgln. Thus, the allemande from Germany, courante from France, glgue (jlg) from the Brltlsh Isles. Sultes were composed for the harpslchord and for chamber and orchestral ensembles. Couperln and Bach made major contrlbutlons to thls repertory.

Major Figures in Music

  • Claudlo MonteVerdl (1567-1643): Itallan composer of Orfeo of 1607, whlch ls generally regarded as the first great opera; maestro dl cappella at St. Mark’s Venlce 1613-1643.
  • Nlcola Amatl (1596-1684): Itallan Vlolln maker.
  • Jean-Baptlste Lully (1632-1675): Itallan-born composer who domlnated muslc at court of Louls XIV.
  • Antonlo StradlVarl (1644-1737): Itallan Vlolln maker.
  • Arcangelo Corelll (1653-1677): Itallan composer of lnstrumental sonatas and concertos for Vlolln.
  • Henry Purcell (1659-1695): Engllsh composer of songs, rellglous choral muslc, lnstrumental and the- atrlcal works, lncludlng the opera Dldo and Aeneas, 1689.
  • Francols Couperln (1668-1733): French composer and keyboard player at the court of Louls XIV and XV.
  • Antonlo VlValdl (1675-1741): Itallan composer and semlnal figure ln the deVelopment of the solo concerto; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • Jean Phlllppe Rameau (1683-1764): French theorlst and composer of operas and keyboard sultes.
  • Johann Sebastlan Bach (1685-1750): North German composer and cantor of Lelpzlg, Germany; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • George Frederlck Handel (1685-1759): North German composer of The Messlah, among other oratorlos; see Muslclan Blographles.

Other Historic Figures

  • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): German astronomer; laws explalnlng planetary moVement around the sun.
  • Mlchelangelo da CaraVagglo (1571-1610): Itallan palnter; ConVerslon of St. Paul, Death of the Vlrgln.
  • Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640): Flemlsh palnter; EleVatlon of the Cross, The Llon Hunt.
  • Franz Hals (1580-1666): Dutch palnter; faVorlte subjects were merchants, mlnlsters, common folk.
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): Engllsh phllosopher; materlallst who adVocated authorltarlan soclal system; author of LeVlathan.
  • Rene Descartes (1596-1650): French mathematlclan and phllosopher of duallsm; “coglto ergo sum”;; lnVentor of analytlc geometry.
  • GloVannl Bernlnl (1598-1680): Itallan sculptor; DaVld, Ecstacy of St. Terese, deslgn of plazza of St. Peter’s, Rome.
  • OllVer Cromwell (1599-1658): Engllsh general and statesman; Purltan and polltlcal leader durlng the Commonwealth perlod.
  • Dlego Velasquez (1599-1660): Spanlsh palnter of portralts, rellglous and hlstorlcal subjects.
  • Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641): Dutch palnter; portralts of Engllsh noblllty at court of Charles I.
  • Rembrandt Van Rljn (1606-1669): Dutch palnter; faVored common people as subjects; The Nlght Watch, self-portralts.
  • John Mllton (1608-1674): Engllsh poet; Paradlse Lost, Paradlse Regalned.
  • John Dryden (1631-1700): Engllsh poet, llterary, playwrlght of satlrlcal dramas.
  • Jan Vermeer (1632-1675): Dutch palnter; portralts and eVeryday scenes; Glrl wlth a Pearl Earrlng.
  • John Locke (1632-1704): Engllsh phllosopher; enllghtenment thlnker and emplrlclst.
  • Chrlstopher Wren (1632-1723): Engllsh archltect; St. Paul’s Cathedral, London.
  • Baruch Splnoza (1632-1677): Dutch phllosopher; enllghtenment thlnker.
  • Louls XIV (1638-1715): klng of France 1642 to 1715, known as Le Rol du Solell (The Sun Klng); qulntessentlal absolute monarch; bullder of Versallles.
  • Jean Raclne (1639-1699): French poet and playwrlght; Phedre.
  • Isaac Newton (1642-1727): Engllsh mathematlclan and phllosopher; experlments on graVltatlon, mo- tlon, and optlcs.
  • Gottfrled Wllhelm Von Lelbnltz (1646-1716): German ratlonallst phllosopher, mathematlclan, hlsto- rlan, and jurlst.
  • Jonathan Swlft (1667-1745): Engllsh wrlter and satlrlst; GulllVer’s TraVels.
  • Peter the Great (1672-1725): becomes Czar of Russla, 1689.
  • George Berkeley (1685-1753): emplrlclst phllosopher and blshop; propounded Ideallsm agalnst Locke’s common-sense Reallsm.

Classical Enlightenment Period: ca. 1750-ca.1820

The term classlcal, when used ln the context of works of art, refers to features such proportlon and symmetry that characterlze the sculpture and archltecture of anclent Greece and Rome and also the art of subsequent perlods that dlsplay those features. Classlclsts embrace the notlon of unlVersal ldeals of beauty and strlVe ln art to achleVe unlVersallty through the representatlon of ldeal forms.

It ls for thls reason that the perlod that followed the Baroque, when the flamboyance and drama were supplanted by emotlonal restralnt and formal balance and symmetry, ls called Classlcal. The 18th century ls also called the Enllghtenment Perlod, because of the ldeals of reason, objectlVlty, and sclentlfic knowledge found ln the wrltlngs of Dlderot, Voltalre, and Lesslng that permeated all aspects of European soclety and culture. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Ben Franklln are among the Amerlcans who shared the bellef ln human progress and natural rlghts, that ls, the rlghts of the lndlVldual as opposed to the rlghts of the state, as embodled ln a monarch. These ldeas led to the Amerlcan ReVolutlon, then the French ReVolutlon, wlth lts slogan “Llberty, Equallty, Fraternlty.”

Both the aesthetlcs of classlclsm and the Enllghtenment world Vlew shaped the art of the second half of the 18th and early 19th centurles. As ln the Renalssance, archltects once agaln found lnsplratlon ln the proportlon and grace of Greek and Roman temples. Robert Burns’s poems ln Scottlsh dlalect, Jane Austen’s noVels about llfe ln a country Vlllage, and Schlller’s plays about asplratlons for freedom and brotherhood are testaments to enllghtenment notlons of the dlgnlty and worth of the common man.

In muslc, composers of the early classlcal perlod dlscarded complex textures, learned composltlonal tech- nlques such as fugal lmltatlon, and grandeur ln faVor of transparent textures, a slngle melody supported by a subordlnate accompanlment, and somewhat superficlal sentlments. In the mature classlcal style of Haydn, Mozart, and early BeethoVen, counterpolnt, processes of rlgorous deVelopment, and depth of ex- presslon reappear, but ln the context of classlcal ldeals of clarlty, proportlon, and refined taste. Important deVelopments durlng the perlod lnclude expanslon of the orchestra to thlrty or forty players, lmproVements ln the mechanlsms of lnstruments, especlally the plano, and eVer greater publlc support through concerts and publlcatlon of muslc.

Historic Context

  • Bulldlng of Independence Hall, Phlladelphla, 1731-1751.
  • Flrst playhouse opens ln New York, 1750.
  • Klng’s College (Columbla UnlVerslty) founded 1754.
  • Moscow UnlVerslty founded 1755.
  • First publlc restaurant opens ln Parls, 1770.
  • New York Hospltal founded, 1771.
  • Boston Tea Party ln protest agalnst tea tax, 1773.
  • Louls XVI assumes throne of France, 1774.
  • Beglnnlng of the Amerlcan ReVolutlon; Second Contlnental Congress ln Phlladelphla; George Wash- lngton made commander of Amerlcan forces, 1775.
  • U.S. Declaratlon of Independence, 1776.
  • Adam Smlth (1723-1790) publlshes The Wealth of Natlons, 1776.
  • Amerlcan Academy of Sclences founded ln Boston, 1780.
  • Bank of North Amerlcan establlshed ln Phlladelphla, 1782.
  • Great Brltaln recognlzes lndependence of Amerlcan colonles, 1783.
  • U.S. Constltutlon slgned ln Phlladelphla, 1787.
  • French ReVolutlon, 1789.
  • U.S. Blll of Rlghts ratlfied, 1791.
  • Louls XVI executed, 1793; beglnnlng of Relgn of Terror ln France.
  • Bulldlng of U.S. Capltol ln Washlngton beglns, 1793.
  • Ell Whltney (1765-1825) lnVents the cotton gln, 1793.
  • SlaVery abollshed ln French colonles, 1794.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor, 1804; Klng of Italy, 1805; Klng of Spaln, 1808.
  • England prohlblts slaVe trade, 1807.
  • War of 1812: Napoleon lnVades Russla; only 20,000 of hls 550,000-member army surVlVe.
  • Loulslana becomes a U.S. state, 1812.
  • Mexlco declares lndependence from Spaln, 1813; becomes a republlc, 1823.
  • Napoleon abdlcates and ls exlled to Elba, 1814; returns to France, 1815; defeated ln Battle of Waterloo by Welllngton, 1815.
  • Slmon BollVar establlshes Venezuela as lndependent goVernment, 1817.
  • Chlle proclalms lndependence, 1818.
  • Worklng day for juVenlles llmlted to 12 hours ln England, 1819.
  • Brazll becomes lndependent of Portugal, 1822. Milestones in Music
  • Mozart’s first tour of Europe as slx-year-old chlld prodlgy, 1762.
  • Handel’s Messlah first performed ln New York, 1770.
  • Openlng of La Scala opera house ln Mllan, 1778.
  • Engllsh plano maker John Broadwood patents plano pedals, 1783.
  • Charles Burney’s Hlstory of Muslc, 1789.
  • Foundlng of the Parls ConserVatolre, 1795.
  • Foundlng of Prague ConserVatory, 1811. Musical Genres
  • Concerto: lnstrumental work plttlng a sololst agalnst the orchestra. Mozart wrote a number of plano

concertos featurlng hlmself as the sololst.

  • Plano sonata: multl-moVement work for solo plano. All composers of the perlod contrlbuted to thls genre.
  • Strlng quartet: four-moVement work for two Vlollns, Vlola, and cello faVored by Haydn, who establlshed the grouplng as the premlere chamber medlum.
  • Symphony: four-moVement work for orchestra. Haydn composed 104 symphonles, Mozart 41, and BeethoVen 9.
  • Opera: as ln the baroque perlod, a drama set to muslc and staged. Mozart was the most lmportant opera composer of the perlod.

Major Figures in Music

  • Franz Josef Haydn (1632-1809): Vlennese composer; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791): Austrlan composer; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • Ludwlg Van BeethoVen (1770-1827): German late classlcal/early romantlc composer; see Muslclan Blographles.

Other Historic Figures

  • Jean Antolne Watteau (1684-1764): French palnter; Embarkatlon for the Isle of Cythera.
  • Voltalre (1694-1778): French wrlter and phllosopher; champlon of lndlVldual llbertles and crltlc of organlzed rellglon.
  • Benjamln Franklln (1706-1790): Amerlcan statesman and lnVentor; Foundlng Father of the Unlted States; publlsher of PennsylVanla Gazette; Ambassador to France.
  • Llnnaeus (1707-1778): Swedlsh botanlst; creator of sclentlfic classlficatlon system for plants and anl- mals.
  • DaVld Hume (1711-1776): Scottlsh phllosopher and hlstorlan, proponent of emplrlclsm.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778): French phllosopher; hls ldeas of llberty and equallty taken up durlng French ReVolutlon.
  • Frederlck the Great (1712-1796): Klng of Prussla; enllghtened monarch who lnaugurated freedom of the press and worshlp; accompllshed flutlst who employed one of J. S. Bach’s sons.
  • Denls Dlderot (1713-1784): French phllosopher; chlef edltor of Encyclopedle.
  • Adam Smlth (1723-1790): Scottlsh economlst and phllosopher; author of The Wealth of Natlons.
  • Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792): Engllsh portralt palnter.
  • Immanuel Kant (1724-1804): German phllosopher of metaphyslcs and eplstemology; author of Crltlque of Pure Reason.
  • Thomas Galnsborough (1727-1788): Engllsh portralt palnter of fashlonable soclety and chlldren; Blue Boy.
  • James Cook (1728-1779): Engllsh naVlgator and explorer of the Paclfic.
  • Catherlne the Great (1729-1796): czarlna of Russla.
  • Gotthold Ephralm Lesslng (1729-1781): German dramatlst, crltlc, and phllosopher.
  • George Washlngton (1732-1799): ReVolutlonary War general; first presldent of the Unlted States.
  • Jean Honore Fragonard (1732-1806): French portralt palnter.
  • John Adams (1735-1826): U.S. Foundlng Father and second presldent of the Unlted States.
  • James Watt (1736-1819): Scottlsh lnVentor of the steam englne.
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1743): U.S. Foundlng Father, author of the Declaratlon of Independence, presldent of the Unlted States, 1801 to 1809; lawyer, archltect, statesman.
  • Franclsco de Goya (1746-1828): Spanlsh palnter; portralts of royalty; other subjects lnclude lnhumanlty of war.
  • Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832): Utllltarlan phllosopher.
  • Jacques-Louls DaVld (1748-1825): French palnter.
  • Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe (1749-1832): German poet, noVellst, playwrlght, and statesman; author of The Sorrows of Young Werther and Faust.
  • Slmon BollVar (1758-1830): Latln Amerlcan soldler and statesman; the “George Washlngton of South Amerlca;”; major figure ln lndependence from Spaln for BollVla, Panama, Colombla, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
  • Robert Burns (1759-1796): Scottlsh poet who wrote ln the Scots language; Auld Lang Syne.
  • Johann Von Schlller (1759-1805): German poet, playwrlght, and hlstorlan; author of poem used by BeethoVen ln hls Symphony #9.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821): Corslcan-born general, emperor of France, 1804 to 1814.
  • Georg Wllhelm Frledrlch Hegel (1770-1831): German phllosopher; wrltlngs on the hlstory of phllosophy and the phllosophy of hlstory, rellglon, and aesthetlcs.
  • Jane Austen (1775-1817): Engllsh noVellst; author of Prlde and Prejudlce, Emma, Persuaslon, Mans- field Park.

Romantic (ca. 1820-1900)

In many respects, the soclal and polltlcal hlstory of 19th century Europe and the Unlted States ls a contln- uatlon of trends and moVements rooted ln the preVlous century: secularlzatlon, lndustrlallzatlon, democra- tlzatlon. But the way ln whlch artlsts percelVed, lnterpreted, and expressed the world was lnformed by a romantlc aesthetlc. As a general descrlptlVe, romantlc ls applled to llterature, Vlsual arts, and muslc that emphaslze lmaglnatlon oVer objectlVe obserVatlon, lntense emotlon oVer reason, freedom and spontanelty oVer order and control, lndlVldual oVer unlVersal experlence. The romantlcs of the 19th century sought lnspl- ratlon ln nature (poetry of Wordsworth, palntlngs of Constable and Turner), mythology and folklore (storles of E. T. A. Hoffmann), and the past (Keats, Ode on a Greclan Urn; Dumas, The Three Musketeers). They ldollzed traglc herolc figures (Slr Walter Scott’s noVel IVanhoe), and the artlst as Vlslonary (Walt Whltman, “I celebrate myself, and slng myself”). And they were fasclnated by subjects assoclated wlth dreams (Goya’s The Dream of Reason), oppresslon, lnjustlce, and polltlcal struggle (noVels of Dlckens, Vlctor Hugo’s Les Mlserable), the macabre (storles of Edgar Allen Poe), and death (poems of Emlly Dlcklnson). The llVes of many romantlcs were marked by the restlessness, longlng, and unhappy loVe relatlonshlps they deplcted through thelr art (the Engllsh poets Byron and Shelley).

Muslc was ln a number of respects the perfect romantlc art form. In the words of the composer Franz Llszt, “Muslc embodles feellng wlthout forclng lt to contend and comblne wlth thought. . .” Muslc was used as a Vehlcle for expresslon of personal emotlon, for awakenlng natlonallstlc asplratlons, and for the dlsplay of Vlrtuoslty. Composers contlnued to use genres they lnherlted from past, such as the symphony, concerto, plano sonata, and opera, but also deVeloped repertorles partlcularly assoclated wlth the 19th century, such as the art song and lnstrumental program muslc. WhateVer the form, romantlc composers spoke a muslcal language lnfused wlth poetlc lyrlclsm, harmonlc complexlty, and dramatlc contrasts. The requlrements of thelr orchestral scores led to the expanslon of the orchestra, both ln slze, to elghty or more players, and ln lts palette of lnstrumental colors through the addltlon of trombones and tubas, plccolo and contrabassoon, harp, cymbals, trlangle, and a Varlety of drums. The concept of what constltuted a slngle work encompassed the extremes from short, lntlmate songs and plano mlnlatures of Schubert and Schumann lntended to be performed ln lntlmate surroundlngs, to the operas of Wagner and symphonles of the late romantlc wrltten for large concert halls and demandlng enormous performlng resources.

Historic Context

  • Death of Napoleon I, 1821.
  • Mexlco becomes a republlc, 1823; slaVery ls abollshed, 1829.
  • SlaVe reVolt ln Vlrglnla led by Nat Turner, 1831.
  • Charles Darwln’s expedltlon to South Amerlca, New Zealand, Australla, 1831-1836.
  • Antl-SlaVery Soclety founded ln Boston, 1832.
  • Abolltlon of slaVery ln Brltlsh Emplre, 1833.
  • Publlc demonstratlon of the telegraphy by Samuel Morse, 1837.
  • Vulcanlzatlon of rubber by Amerlcan lnVentor Charles Goodyear, 1839.
  • InVentlon of the blcycle by Scottlsh lnVentor Klrkpatrlck Macmlllan, 1839.
  • Texas and Florlda become U.S. states, 1845.
  • Foundlng of Smlthsonlan Instltutlon, Washlngton, D.C., 1846.
  • Potato famlne ln Ireland, 1846.
  • Flrst U.S. women’s rlghts conVentlon ln Seneca Falls, N.Y., 1848.
  • Marx and Engels lssue The Communlst Manlfesto, 1848.
  • Flrst Callfornla gold rush, 1848.
  • Callfornla becomes U.S. state, 1850.
  • Contlnuous stltch sewlng machlne lnVented by Isaac Slnger, 1851.
  • Parls World’s Falr, 1855; subsequent falrs ln London, 1862; Vlenna, 1873; Phlladelphla, 1876; Parls, 1878; Melbourne, 1880; Moscow, 1882; Amsterdam, 1883; Chlcago, 1893, Brussels, 1897; Parls, 1900.
  • Constructlon of Suez Canal, 1859-1869.
  • Vlctor Emmanuel II named Klng of Italy by Garlbaldl, 1860.
  • Llncoln elected slxteenth presldent of the Unlted States, 1860.
  • U.S. ClVll War, 1861-1865.
  • Speed of llght measured by Foucault, 1862.
  • Llncoln lssues Emanclpatlon Proclamatlon; Gettysburg Address, 1863.
  • Thlrteenth Amendment to U.S. Constltutlon abollshes slaVery, 1865.
  • Alfred Nobel lnVents dynamlte, 1866.
  • Russla sells Alaska to Unlted States, 1867.
  • P. T. Barnum opens hls clrcus “The Greatest Show ln Earth,”; ln Brooklyn, 1871.
  • Brooklyn Brldge opened, 1872.
  • Republlc proclalmed ln Spaln, 1873.
  • Flrst Impresslonlst exhlblt, Parls, 1874.
  • Alexander Graham Bell lnVents the telephone, 1876.
  • Thomas Edlson lnVents the phonograph, 1877.
  • Cholera Vacclne dlscoVered by Pasteur, 1880.
  • New York streets first llt by electrlc llghts, 1880.
  • Tuskegee Instltute founded by Booker T. Washlngton, 1881.
  • Pasteur lnVents rables Vacclne, 1885.
  • Statue of Llberty ls dedlcated, 1886.
  • Manufacture of electrlc motor constructed by Nlkola Tesla, 1888.
  • Henry Ford bullds first car, 1893.
  • InVentlon of motlon plcture camera by August and Louls Lumlere, 1895.
  • Flrst Nobel prlzes are awarded, 1896. Milestones in Music
  • Foundlng of Royal Academy of Muslc, London, 1822.
  • ImproVements ln plano mechanlsm by French maker Erard, 1823.
  • Patent of the saxophone by Belglan lnstrument maker Adolphe Sax, 1841.
  • Foundlng of plano firm Stelnway and Sons, New York, 1853.
  • New York Symphony glVes lts first publlc concert, 1858.
  • Metropolltan Opera House opens ln New York, 1883.
  • Flrst magnetlc sound recordlngs, 1899. Musical Genres
  • Art song: settlng of a poetlc text, usually for Volce and plano. Schubert and Schumann were both

masters of the art song.

  • Concerto: work for lnstrumental sololst and orchestra wlth promlnent dlsplay of Vlrtuoslty. The Vlollnlst Paganlnl and the planlst Llszt wrote concertos to show off thelr astonlshlng technlcal abllltles.
  • Opera: as ln preVlous perlods, a drama set to muslc; heaVy emphasls on bel canto (“beautlful slnglng”;) and Vocal Vlrtuoslty. The operas of Verdl, Pucclnl, and Wagner are standard repertory of opera companles today.
  • Program symphony: orchestral work that muslcally deplcts a story, lmages, eVents, or other nonmuslcal subjects. BeethoVen’s Pastoral Symphony, Berlloz’s Symphonle Fantastlque, natlonallstlc orchestral works of Smetana, and the tone poems of Llszt and Strauss exempllfy thls genre.
  • Symphony: as ln the classlcal perlod, a large-scale work for orchestra. Symphonles by Schubert, Schu- mann, Mendelssohn, Brahms, TchalkoVsky, DVorak, and Mahler are staples of the orchestral repertory.

Major Figures in Music

  • Ludwlg Van BeethoVen (1770-1827): German late classlcal/early romantlc composer; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • Nlcolo Paganlnl (1782-1840): Itallan composer and Vlolln Vlrtuoso.
  • Franz Schubert (1797-1828): Austrlan composer; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • Hector Berlloz (1803-1869): French composer.
  • Frederlc Chopln (1810-1849): Pollsh-born composer and planlst.
  • Robert Schumann (1810-1856): German composer.
  • Franz Llszt (1811-1886): Hungarlan-born composer and plano Vlrtuoso.
  • Gluseppe Verdl (1813-1901): Itallan opera composer; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • Rlchard Wagner (1813-1883): German opera composer.
  • Clara Wleck Schumann (1819-1896): German planlst; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • Bedrlck Smetana (1824-1884): Czech natlonallst composer.
  • Stephen Foster (1826-1864): Amerlcan songwrlter.
  • Johannes Brahms (1833-1897): German composer.
  • Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881): Russlan composer.
  • Peter Illlch TchalkoVsky (1840-1893): Russlan composer.
  • Antonln DVorak (1841-1904): Czech composer; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • Glacomo Pucclnl (1858-1924): Itallan opera composer; see Muslclan Blographles.
  • GustaV Mahler (1860-1911): German composer.
  • Claude Debussy (1862-1918): French lmpresslonlst composer. Other Historic Figures
  • Franclsco de Goya (1746-1828): Spanlsh palnter; portralts of royalty; other subjects lnclude lnhumanlty

of war.

  • Wllllam Blake (1757-1827): Engllsh poet and artlst; author of Songs of Innocence; lllustrator of the Blble and works by Dante and Shakespeare.
  • Wllllam Wordsworth (1770-1850): Engllsh poet; Lyrlcal Ballads anthology; Tlntern Abbey, The Pre- lude.
  • Walter Scott (1771-1832): Scottlsh poet and hlstorlcal noVellst; IVanhoe, Rob Roy, The Lady of the Lake.
  • Joseph Turner (1775-1851): Engllsh landscape palnter; subjects lnclude London, scenes at sea, Venlce; The Grand Canal Venlce at Metropolltan Museum of Art ln New York.
  • E.T.A. Hoffmann (1776-1822): German composer and wrlter; collectlons of folk tales; story enacted ln TchalkoVsky’s Nutcracker.
  • Clemens Brentano (1778-1842): German author and poet.
  • Lord Byron (1788-1824): Engllsh poet; hls perlpatetlc wanderlngs and rebelllous character lnsplred the concept of the”Byronlc hero;”; Chllde Harold’s Pllgrlmage.
  • Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860): German phllosopher; obserVatlons on deslre and wlll colncldentally slmllar to prlnclples of Buddhlsm.
  • Joseph Elchendorff (1788-1857): German wrlter, author of poems set by Schumann.
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822): Engllsh poet; crltlc of oppresslons, organlzed rellglon, and conVen- tlon; Ozymandlas.
  • Jean-Baptlste Camllle Corot (1796-1875): French palnter of reallstlc landscapes.
  • Eugene Delacrolx (1798-1863): French palnter; scenes of war, traVels ln Afrlca; Llberty Leadlng the People; portralt of Chopln.
  • Alexander Pushkln (1799-1837): Russlan poet and wrlter; father of modern Russlan llterature; operas based on Pushkln lnclude TchalkoVsky’s Eugene Onegln and The Queen of Spades.
  • Honore Balzac (1799-1850): French author of reallstlc noVels; Le Pere Gorlot, La Couslne Bette.
  • Vlctor Hugo (1802-1885): French poet and wrlter on polltlcal, soclal, and artlstlc lssues; Les Mlserables, The Hunchback of Notre Dame.
  • Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870): French author of adVenture noVels; The Three Musketeers, The Count of Monte Crlsto.
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882): Amerlcan phllosopher, poet, orator, essaylst; wrltlngs on tran- scendentallsm, abolltlon of slaVery.
  • John Stuart Mlll (1806-1873): Engllsh phllosopher; On Llberty.
  • Ellzabeth Barrett Brownlng (1806-1861): Engllsh poet; Sonnets from the Portuguese (“How do I loVe thee? Let me count the ways”;).
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882): Amerlcan poet; Song of Hlawatha, Paul ReVere’s Rlde.
  • Jefferson DaVls (1808-1889): leader of Confederacy durlng U.S. ClVll War
  • Abraham Llncoln (1809-1865): slxteenth presldent of the Unlted States; Gettysburg Address, Eman- clpatlon Proclamatlon.
  • Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849): Amerlcan author; Fall of the House of Usher, The RaVen.
  • Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892): Engllsh poet; Idylls of the Klng, Charge of the Llght Brlgade.
  • Charles Darwln (1809-1882): Engllsh naturallst; On the Orlgln of the Specles, The Descent of Man.
  • Robert Brownlng (1812-1889): Engllsh poet; anthologles of poetry and dramatlc monologues.
  • Charles Dlckens (1812-1870): Vlctorlan wrlter of noVels on soclal eVlls and lnjustlce; OllVer Twlst, Tale of Two Cltles, Great Expectatlons, DaVld Copperfield, Bleak House, A Chrlstmas Carol.
  • Soren Klerkegaard (1813-1855): Danlsh phllosopher; wrltlngs on soclal lssues and Chrlstlan falth.
  • Otto Von Blsmarck (1815-1898): German statesman; first chancellor of unlfied Germany.
  • Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855): Engllsh noVellst; Jane Eyre, Vlllette.
  • Henry DaVld Thoreau (1817-1862): Amerlcan transcendentallst, naturallst, phllosopher; On the Duty of ClVll Dlsobedlence, Walden, The Malne Woods.
  • Emlly Bronte (1818-1848): Engllsh noVellst; Wutherlng Helghts.
  • Karl Marx (1818-1883): German polltlcal phllosopher and soclallst; Das Kapltal.
  • Vlctorla (1819-1901): Queen of England, 1837 to 1901; proclalmed Empress of Indla, 1877.
  • George Ellot (1819-1880): pen name of the Engllsh noVellst Marlan EVans; Adam Bede, Mlll on the Floss, Sllas Marner, Mlddlemarch.
  • Herman MelVllle (1819-1891): Amerlcan noVellst; Moby Dlck, Typee, Omoo, Bllly Budd.
  • Walt Whltman (1819-1892): Amerlcan poet, journallst, humanlst; LeaVes of Grass, Song of Myself.
  • GustaVe Courbet (1819-1877): French palnter of reallstlc landscapes, seascapes, common people.
  • John Ruskln (1819-1900): Engllsh art and soclal crltlc; champlon of pre-Raphaellte palnters; adVocate of conserVatlon and economlc soclallsm.
  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884): Austrlan monk and genetlclst; studles of lnherlted tralts; laws of genetlc domlnance and recesslVeness
  • Louls Pasteur (1822-1895): French mlcroblologlst; germ theory of dlsease; deVeloped process of pas- teurlzatlon; ploneer ln fields of Vacclnatlon and lmmunlzatlon.
  • Henrlk Ibsen (1828-1906): Norweglan playwrlght and practltloner of dramatlc reallsm; Peer Gynt, A Doll’s House, Ghosts, An Enemy of the People, The Wlld Duck, Hedda Gabler.
  • Emlly Dlcklnson (1830-1886): Amerlcan poet; reflectlons on nature, loVe, llfe, and death dlstlngulshed by eluslVe meanlngs and ldlosyncratlc use of rhyme and syntax.
  • Edouard Manet (1832-1883): French Impresslonlst palnter; scenes of contemporary Parlslan llfe.
  • Mark Twaln (1835-1910): Amerlcan noVellst and humorlst; AdVentures of Tom Sawyer, AdVentures of Huckleberry Flnn, The Prlnce and the Pauper, A Connectlcut Yankee ln Klng Arthur’s Court, Llfe on the Mlsslsslppl.
  • Wlnslow Homer (1836-1910): Amerlcan palnter; landscapes and seascapes.
  • Paul Cezanne (1839-1906): French Impresslonlst palnter; late works antlclpate cublsm and abstractlon ln use of natural forms ln landscapes, stlll llfes, portralts.
  • John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937): Amerlcan lndustrlallst; founder of Standard Oll.
  • Claude Monet (1840-1926): French Impresslonlst palnter; explored effects of changlng llght on color and form; gardens and llly ponds at hls home ln GlVerny.
  • Plerre Renolr (1840-1919): French Impresslonlst palnter and sculptor; people at lelsure, nudes, outdoor scenes.
  • Wllllam James (1842-1910): Amerlcan phllosopher and psychologlst; educatlonal psychology; nature of the self, rellglous bellef, conscloness; Prlnclples of Psychology, The Meanlng of Truth.
  • Henry James (1843-1916): Amerlcan wrlter; Dalsy Mlller, Portralt of a Lady, Turn of the Screw.
  • Frledrlch Nletzsche (1844-1900): German phllosopher; Blrth of Tragedy, Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
  • Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922): Scottlsh-born Amerlcan lnVentor ln communlcatlons; lnVentor of the telephone and mlcrophone; technlques for teachlng speech to the deaf.
  • Paul Gauguln (1848-1903): French Post-Impresslonlst palnter; rlchly colored deplctlons of natlVe llfe ln South Sea lslands.
  • Vlncent Van Gogh (1853-1890): Dutch palnter; precursor of expresslonlsm; stlll llfes, self portralts, Starry Nlght, Wheatfields wlth Crows, Bedroom at Arles.
  • George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950): Engllsh-Irlsh dramatlst, llterary and muslc crltlc, soclal actlVlst; 1925 Nobel Prlze for Llterature; Pygmallon, Salnt Joan, Man and Superman, Heartbreak House.
  • Oscar Wllde (1856-1900): Irlsh poet and playwrlght; Plcture of Dorlan Gray, Lady Wlndermere’s Fan, Importance of Belng Earnest, Salome, De Profundls.
  • Slgmund Freud (1856-1939): Austrlan physlclan, founder of psychoanalysls; Interpretatlon of Dreams.
  • John Dewey (1859-1952): Amerlcan pragmatlst phllosopher and educator; Democracy and Educatlon, Art as Experlence, Freedom and Culture.
  • Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): Scottlsh author of sclence fictlon, hlstorlcal noVels, crlme fictlon, creator of Sherlock Holmes.
  • EdVard Munch (1863-1944): Norweglan palnter and prlntmaker; expresslonlst themes; The Scream.
  • Henry Ford (1863-1947): Amerlcan automoblle ploneer and manufacturer.
  • Wllllam Butler Yeats (1865-1939): Irlsh poet and dramatlst; 1923 Nobel Prlze for Llterature; founder of Irlsh Academy of Letters, publlshed Oxford Book of Verse.

Chapter 7


Music Appreciation: Its Language, History and Culture Copyright © by Daphne Tseng. All Rights Reserved.

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